Coaching – Socratic method based one-on-one discussions where the coach uses a series of questions and appreciative inquiry to help the leader discover her/his own path, answers, and epiphanies. Advice is not allowed in this model.
Competency Coaching – This is a blend of the previous definition of coaching with the addition of content around specific leadership competencies added in to the experience to raise the level of practical ability of the leader on a one-on-one basis.
Mentoring – Mentoring is a blend of shared experiences, socratic coaching, and advice.
Counseling – dealing with personal and interpersonal dynamics to help an individual gain perspective and clarity on the areas of their life that are causing angst, discomfort, or uncertainty.
Appended note based on Dan Pontefract’s question in comments (thx Dan!):
Coaching Culture – a coaching culture is a leadership methodology that blends learning, support and direction – the leader as a coach and mentor instead of old paradigm of task master extrordinaire. The goal of the leader in a coaching culture is to lead, guide, and grow the abilities of their team, using a combination of shared learning and experiences, insightful questions (see appreciative inquiry), and access to learning resources. This includes seeing everyone as a leader so the approach is 360 (peers, direct reports, my boss). A key component of this approach is a common set of language protocols which encourage open dialogue, candour, transparency, and ideological conflict (instead of interpersonal conflict).